For a model of a molecule to work it must provide at least these 7 functions.

1.  It must be the mechanism by which gravity works.

2.  It must hold the atom and the molecule together.

3.  It must be able to provide or change into all the energy particles that come out when  the
     atom/molecule is split.

4.  It must have a logical unit that determines it’s mass.

5.  It must be able to connect or not connect to other elements.

6.  It must provide the mechanism for hot and cold.  (In another section).

7.  It must provide the mechanism of adhesion between molecules. (In another section).

Under the section “Introducing the Key Ring Atom” is a model of a Hydrogen key ring atom.  You should read that section before continuing.  This atomic model has a hole that gravity can go to and through.  This is based on the theory that gravity is a particle and it pushes.  This satisfies function 1 in my theory.    The atom is held together by a single particle called a “Proton Ring”.  The proton ring holds a large number of circling electron rings the same way your “Key Ring” holds your keys.  This satisfies part of function 2 in my theory.  If an atom is broken, the proton ring release all the electron rings and they change their “state” to light, infrared light, radio waves and all the other energies that come out in an atomic explosion.  This satisfies function 3 in my theory.

Functions 2, 4 and 5 are what this section primarily deals with.  The key ring atom is the replacement of all protons and neutrons or to put it another way a proton ring replaces either a proton or a neutron.  It’s a 1 to 1 replacement.  The proton ring brings all the electron rings with it.  The proton ring is the logical unit that determines a molecules mass.  This satisfies function 4 in my theory.  I think science has done a great job in identifying the logical units that cause atoms to have mass.  I just disagree with what the logical unit is. 

Function 2 is the molecule must hold itself together.  So we now you have to combine key ring atoms.  How do you add more keys to your key ring, if it is full?  Just add more key rings.  How do you do that?  Hook the key ring inside of the other key ring.  In the simplest of terms it is a chain.  That is what we will do with the proton rings. Circle proton rings inside of other proton rings.  We now have a chain.  This is something that we use in everyday life, from a chain around you neck holding jewelry to a leash that holds your dog.  This satisfies the rest of function 2 in my theory.

Function 5 is what we will deal with here.  How the key ring atoms are chained together in each molecule will effect how they connect to other molecules.  The connection is known as chemical bonding.  In chemistry each element has a valence that has been assigned to it.  There are positive valences and negative valences and zero valences. The positive valences like to hook to the negative valences.  Some elements have a positive/negative valence or in other words they will hook to elements that have either a positive or a negative valence.  Elements with a zero valence don’t hook to any other element.  A lot of work has gone into the determination of the valences and the chemical bonding.  I agree with valences and the basics of chemical bonding.  What I don’t agree with is the “How the valence shell work”.

I had chemistry when I was 17 in 1977.  It was taught that elements have valence shells.  These shells were different layers of electrons that circled around the proton neutron core.  The valence shells determined the positive negative zero valence.  The electrons in the valence shells could be shared with other elements.  A shared electron produced the chemical bond.  This is what held the elements together.  I didn’t get it.  I didn’t understand it.  It didn’t make sense to me.  I could not find any geometrical equivalent in our physical universe.  To this day valence shells still don’t make sense to me.  My goal now is to replace valence shells with something far simpler and that can be constructed in a geometrical manner.

To be able to do this I came up with a molecular numbering system.  For short I named this system the “Molenum”.  Each element has a molenum.  Each element can have a center, which is symbolized with a C.  The number following a C symbol is the number of proton rings in the center of the atom.  Hydrogen has a molenum of C1.  The illustration is below.  Hydrogen has a valence of +1.  It will hook one other element that has a negative valence.  Where will hydrogen be hooked to another element?  It will hook through the center of the proton ring.  A shared electron ring will be what holds compounds or elements together.  I will discuss and show the shared electron rings in another section.  For now I will be showing where the connection point is.

Illustration Of Hydrogen

The next element on the periodic table is Helium.  Helium has an atomic weight of 4.  It was believed to have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  I have built it with 4 proton rings.  All 4 proton rings are connected at the center.  The molenum of helium is C4.  An illustration is below.  Helium has a valence of 0.  It will not bond with any other elements.  Why won’t it bond with anything else?  I believe it is due to the overlapping of electron rings.  Another element can’t get close enough to hook up.

Illustration Of Helium

The next element is Carbon.  Carbon has an atomic weight of 12.  I have made it with 12 proton rings.  This is where valence comes into play.  Carbon has a +-4 valence.  It will combine with 4 other elements.  To get it to bond I have added another symbol to the Molecular Numbering system.  I have added an “L”.  It stands for leg.  The purpose of the leg is to provide a connection point and it has to be far enough from the center to get away from the overlapping electron rings.  The molenum of Carbon is C4-4L2.  C4 is for a center of 4 proton rings.  The center is the same as the helium molecule.  The 4L2 stands for 4 legs with 2 proton rings in each leg.  The illustration is below.  Each leg is far enough from the center so the overlapping electron rings don’t keep it from connecting to another element.  There are 4 legs so there are 4 connection points.  You can look at this element to tell how it will act chemically.   All elements that have a positive valence will have legs that are 2 proton rings in length.

Illustration Of Carbon

The next element is Nitrogen.  Nitrogen has an atomic weight of 14.  I have made it with 14 proton rings.  This is where negative valence comes into play.  Nitrogen has a -3 valence.  It will combine with 3 other elements.  The molenum of Nitrogen is C5-3L3.  C5 is for a center of 5 proton rings.  The 3L3 stands for 3 legs with 3 proton rings in each leg.  The illustration is below.  Each leg is now 3 long.  The end of each leg is farther from the center.  This makes it act different chemically.  I made all the molecules with positive valence to have 2 proton rings in a leg and I made all molecules with negative valence to have legs of 3 proton rings or more. As a general rule 3 proton ring legs like to connect to 2 proton ring legs and 2 proton ring legs don’t like to hook to other 2 proton ring legs. There are lots of exceptions to this general rule.

Illustration Of Nitrogen

The next element is Oxygen.  Oxygen has an atomic weight of 15.9.  I have made it with 16 proton rings.  Oxygen has a -2 valence.  Oxygen can connect with 2 other elements.  It can connect two elements together like a log chain or it can also hook twice to the same element.  I view Oxygen to be just like a long chain.  I gave it a molenum of L16.  It is one log chain of proton rings.  It does not have a center number.  This will let oxygen bend or turn and connect to 2 other elements connection points.

Illustration Of Oxygen

In the book we have a total of 20 of the first elements from the periodic chart with illustrations and molenums.  It is a little more in depth than covered here. 

These molecules fulfill most of the first 5 functions of an atomic model.  The next section will be the Introducing the Key Ring Compounds.  This will be the last piece of function 5.  We will connect some of the molecules together.  The center of the atoms gets pretty cloudy with all the overlapping electron rings.  Seeing a clear picture of the center of an atom will be a major feat.  I see the gravity particle as a very thin particle.  It has to go through all the overlapping electron rings to get to the center of the key ring atom it is going to.