For a model of a
molecule to work it must provide at least these 7 functions.
1. It must be the
mechanism by which gravity works.
2. It must hold
the atom and the molecule together.
3. It must be
able to provide or change into all the energy particles that
come out when the
atom/molecule is split.
4. It must have a
logical unit that determines it’s mass.
5. It must be
able to connect or not connect to other elements.
6. It must
provide the mechanism for hot and cold. (In another section).
7. It must
provide the mechanism of adhesion between molecules. (In another
Under the section “Introducing the Key Ring Atom” is a model of
a Hydrogen key ring atom. You should read that section before
continuing. This atomic model has a hole that gravity can go to
and through. This is based on the theory that gravity is a
particle and it pushes. This satisfies function 1 in my
theory. The atom is held together by a single particle called
a “Proton Ring”. The proton ring holds a large number of
circling electron rings the same way your “Key Ring” holds your
keys. This satisfies part of function 2 in my theory. If an
atom is broken, the proton ring release all the electron rings
and they change their “state” to light, infrared light, radio
waves and all the other energies that come out in an atomic
explosion. This satisfies function 3 in my theory.
Functions 2, 4 and 5 are what this section primarily deals
with. The key ring atom is the replacement of all protons and
neutrons or to put it another way a proton ring replaces either
a proton or a neutron. It’s a 1 to 1 replacement. The proton
ring brings all the electron rings with it. The proton ring is
the logical unit that determines a molecules mass. This
satisfies function 4 in my theory. I think science has done a
great job in identifying the logical units that cause atoms to
have mass. I just disagree with what the logical unit is.
Function 2 is the molecule must hold itself together. So we now
you have to combine key ring atoms. How do you add more keys to
your key ring, if it is full? Just add more key rings. How do
you do that? Hook the key ring inside of the other key ring.
In the simplest of terms it is a chain. That is what we will do
with the proton rings. Circle proton rings inside of other
proton rings. We now have a chain. This is something that we
use in everyday life, from a chain around you neck holding
jewelry to a leash that holds your dog. This satisfies the rest
of function 2 in my theory.
Function 5 is what we will deal with here. How the key ring
atoms are chained together in each molecule will effect how they
connect to other molecules. The connection is known as chemical
bonding. In chemistry each element has a valence that has been
assigned to it. There are positive valences and negative
valences and zero valences. The positive valences like to hook
to the negative valences. Some elements have a
positive/negative valence or in other words they will hook to
elements that have either a positive or a negative valence.
Elements with a zero valence don’t hook to any other element. A
lot of work has gone into the determination of the valences and
the chemical bonding. I agree with valences and the basics of
chemical bonding. What I don’t agree with is the “How the
valence shell work”.
had chemistry when I was 17 in 1977. It was taught that
elements have valence shells. These shells were different
layers of electrons that circled around the proton neutron
core. The valence shells determined the positive negative zero
valence. The electrons in the valence shells could be shared
with other elements. A shared electron produced the chemical
bond. This is what held the elements together. I didn’t get
it. I didn’t understand it. It didn’t make sense to me. I
could not find any geometrical equivalent in our physical
universe. To this day valence shells still don’t make sense to
me. My goal now is to replace valence shells with something far
simpler and that can be constructed in a geometrical manner.
be able to do this I came up with a molecular numbering system.
For short I named this system the “Molenum”. Each element has a
molenum. Each element can have a center, which is symbolized
with a C. The number following a C symbol is the number of
proton rings in the center of the atom. Hydrogen has a molenum
of C1. The illustration is below. Hydrogen has a valence of
+1. It will hook one other element that has a negative
valence. Where will hydrogen be hooked to another element? It
will hook through the center of the proton ring. A shared
electron ring will be what holds compounds or elements
together. I will discuss and show the shared electron rings in
another section. For now I will be showing where the connection
The next element on the periodic table is Helium. Helium has an
atomic weight of 4. It was believed to have 2 protons and 2
neutrons. I have built it with 4 proton rings. All 4 proton
rings are connected at the center. The molenum of helium is
C4. An illustration is below. Helium has a valence of 0. It
will not bond with any other elements. Why won’t it bond with
anything else? I believe it is due to the overlapping of
electron rings. Another element can’t get close enough to hook
The next element is Carbon. Carbon has
an atomic weight of 12. I have made it with 12 proton rings.
This is where valence comes into play. Carbon has a +-4
valence. It will combine with 4 other elements. To get it to
bond I have added another symbol to the Molecular Numbering
system. I have added an “L”. It stands for leg. The purpose
of the leg is to provide a connection point and it has to be far
enough from the center to get away from the overlapping electron
rings. The molenum of Carbon is C4-4L2. C4 is for a center of
4 proton rings. The center is the same as the helium molecule.
The 4L2 stands for 4 legs with 2 proton rings in each leg. The
illustration is below. Each leg is far enough from the center
so the overlapping electron rings don’t keep it from connecting
to another element. There are 4 legs so there are 4 connection
points. You can look at this element to tell how it will act
chemically. All elements that have a positive valence will
have legs that are 2 proton rings in length.
The next element is Nitrogen. Nitrogen has an atomic weight of
14. I have made it with 14 proton rings. This is where
negative valence comes into play. Nitrogen has a -3 valence.
It will combine with 3 other elements. The molenum of Nitrogen
is C5-3L3. C5 is for a center of 5 proton rings. The 3L3
stands for 3 legs with 3 proton rings in each leg. The
illustration is below. Each leg is now 3 long. The end of each
leg is farther from the center. This makes it act different
chemically. I made all the molecules with positive valence to
have 2 proton rings in a leg and I made all molecules with
negative valence to have legs of 3 proton rings or more. As a
general rule 3 proton ring legs like to connect to 2 proton ring
legs and 2 proton ring legs don’t like to hook to other 2 proton
ring legs. There are lots of exceptions to this general rule.
The next element is Oxygen. Oxygen has an atomic weight of
15.9. I have made it with 16 proton rings. Oxygen has a -2
valence. Oxygen can connect with 2 other elements. It can
connect two elements together like a log chain or it can also
hook twice to the same element. I view Oxygen to be just like a
long chain. I gave it a molenum of L16. It is one log chain of
proton rings. It does not have a center number. This will let
oxygen bend or turn and connect to 2 other elements connection
In the book we have a total of 20 of the first elements from the
periodic chart with illustrations and molenums. It is a little
more in depth than covered here.
These molecules fulfill most of the first 5 functions of an
atomic model. The next section will be the Introducing the Key
Ring Compounds. This will be the last piece of function 5. We
will connect some of the molecules together. The center of the
atoms gets pretty cloudy with all the overlapping electron
rings. Seeing a clear picture of the center of an atom will be
a major feat. I see the gravity particle as a very thin
particle. It has to go through all the overlapping electron
rings to get to the center of the key ring atom it is going to.