For a model of a molecule to work it must provide at least these 7 functions.

1.  It must be the mechanism by which gravity works.

2.  It must have a mechanical way to hold the atom and the molecule together.

3.  It must be able to provide or change into all the energy particles that come out when  the atom/molecule is split.

4.  It must have a logical unit that determines itís mass.

5.  It must be able to connect or not connect to other elements.

6.  It must provide the mechanism for hot and cold. 

7.  It must provide the mechanism of adhesion between molecules. (In another section).

Function 6 is what I will be dealing with in this section.  I had another section called ďWhat causes hot and cold in the key ring atom?Ē   That section shows how the size or circumference of the electron ring causes hot and cold.  Larger electron rings are hotter and smaller electron rings are colder.  In this section I am going to try and show how the larger electron rings affect the shape of the atoms and molecules.  When the shape changes so will the physical characteristics of the atom or molecule.  This shape will determine why things are a solid, a liquid, or a gas.

The key ring atom is shaped like a donut.  It is also shaped like an inner tube taken out of a tire on a car.  A single inner tube would be the equivalent of a single hydrogen atom.  This inner tube can be used as a very good example of what happens in a key ring atom as it heats up or as the electron rings get bigger.  Get an inner tube or visualize this in your mind if you can.  Start with no air in the tube.  Now inflate the tube with enough air so that it fills up to be a donut shape.  This would be considered to be absolute zero in the key ring atom.  The tube will now lay flat on its side.  You can stack a large number of tubes on top of each other.  The density of the tube is at itís highest at this point of inflation.  In the key ring atom, I consider atoms that lay flat to be solids.  Next inflate the tube until the outside of the donut is twice as big.  What happens to the tube?  It gets round.  It will now roll.  It will not lay flat and will not stack as easy.  The density of the tube is much lower.  When atoms roll I consider this to be a liquid in my key ring atoms.  Next inflate the tube until the outside of the donut is about 3 times lager than when you started.  What happens to the tube?  It gets even rounder.  It will now bounce quite easily.  The density of the tube is much lower.  When atoms bounce I consider this to be a gas in my key ring atom model.

The inner tube comparison was for a single hydrogen key ring atom.  Can inflating and deflating a more complicated compound be done? Yes, it can.  Letís use something that is very common.  In the next illustration we will use water or H20.  Below is an illustration of H20 as a gas, a liquid, and a solid.

Illustration Of Steam, Water And Ice

In the illustration there are 3 H20 molecules.  The top H20 is a gas or steam.  The middle H20 is a liquid or water.  The middle H20 is a solid or ice.  The darker rings are the proton rings and the lighter rings are the electron rings.  There are 4 electron rings for each proton ring.  The oxygen is the center 16 proton rings.  A single proton ring or hydrogen atom is off each end.  A shared electron ring holds each hydrogen atom to the oxygen molecule.  The illustrator spent many hours doing this illustration.  He used electron rings that had a diameter of about 4 times that of a proton ring for the steam illustration.  For the water illustration he used a diameter of 3 times that of a proton ring.   On the ice illustration the electron rings diameter is 2 times that of a proton ring.  These diameters may not be true to scale but they show the principle of the shape changing as the electron rings get bigger (hotter) or smaller (colder).

The steam illustration is at the top.  Imagine this as 18 inner tubes all inflated to a large size.  The density of this atom is very low.  It is like a great big balloon.  This atom will bounce.  It will be a gas. 

The water illustration is in the middle.  The 18 inner tubes (key ring atoms) are smaller than in the steam.  When the electron rings get smaller or are cooled they will coil through other electron rings and proton rings.  As each individual key ring atom cools there will be different pressures exerted throughout the water compound.  I believe this pressure causes the water molecule to warp into a round ball.  Now that it is round it will roll.  H20 will now be a liquid.  The density of this atom is much higher than that of the steam.  Notice the overlapping of the electron rings.  This makes the atom much denser.

The ice illustration is at the bottom.  As the H20 compound cools, the pressure changes and the compound straightens out, it is no longer warped.  Now the atom will lay flat.  It will be a solid.  Notice there are no overlapping electron rings.  The density of ice will be less than that of water due to the lack of the overlapping electron rings.  Thatísí why ice will float.  When water straightens out it also expands.  This is what causes pipes to break when they freeze.  

The rate of heat transfer will also be different between water and ice.  When you heat ice, the transfer of heat will be along a straight line.  How the electron rings touch will determine heat transfer.  When you heat the water, the transfer of heat will be in a circle.  The electron rings will touch each other at different angles than with ice, thus a different transfer rate.  The different transfer rate is already well known.  With the key ring atom and key ring compound this is very easy to see.

Once again, geometry explains the phenomenon.  Geometry explains solids.  Geometry explains liquids.  Geometry explains gases.  Geometry explains heat transfer.  With the standard model, you have a vibrating miniature solar system.  It is very difficult to use to explain any of these phenomenon with.  Why is that?  Is it possible that the geometry of the standard model is wrong?  Is it possible that the atom is not a miniature solar system?  The vibrating miniature solar system was a 20th century idea.  It may be time for the 21st century idea Ė the key ring atom.