For a model of a
molecule to work it must provide at least these 7 functions.
1. It must be the
mechanism by which gravity works.
2. It must have a
mechanical way to hold the atom and the molecule together.
3. It must be
able to provide or change into all the energy particles that
come out when the atom/molecule is split.
4. It must have a
logical unit that determines itís mass.
5. It must be
able to connect or not connect to other elements.
6. It must
provide the mechanism for hot and cold.
7. It must
provide the mechanism of adhesion between molecules. (In another
Function 6 is what I will be dealing with in this section. I
had another section called ďWhat causes hot and cold in the key
ring atom?Ē That section shows how the size or circumference
of the electron ring causes hot and cold. Larger electron rings
are hotter and smaller electron rings are colder. In this
section I am going to try and show how the larger electron rings
affect the shape of the atoms and molecules. When the shape
changes so will the physical characteristics of the atom or
molecule. This shape will determine why things are a solid, a
liquid, or a gas.
The key ring atom is shaped like a donut. It is also shaped
like an inner tube taken out of a tire on a car. A single inner
tube would be the equivalent of a single hydrogen atom. This
inner tube can be used as a very good example of what happens in
a key ring atom as it heats up or as the electron rings get
bigger. Get an inner tube or visualize this in your mind if you
can. Start with no air in the tube. Now inflate the tube with
enough air so that it fills up to be a donut shape. This would
be considered to be absolute zero in the key ring atom. The
tube will now lay flat on its side. You can stack a large
number of tubes on top of each other. The density of the tube
is at itís highest at this point of inflation. In the key ring
atom, I consider atoms that lay flat to be solids. Next inflate
the tube until the outside of the donut is twice as big. What
happens to the tube? It gets round. It will now roll. It will
not lay flat and will not stack as easy. The density of the
tube is much lower. When atoms roll I consider this to be a
liquid in my key ring atoms. Next inflate the tube until the
outside of the donut is about 3 times lager than when you
started. What happens to the tube? It gets even rounder. It
will now bounce quite easily. The density of the tube is much
lower. When atoms bounce I consider this to be a gas in my key
ring atom model.
The inner tube comparison was for a single hydrogen key ring
atom. Can inflating and deflating a more complicated compound
be done? Yes, it can. Letís use something that is very common.
In the next illustration we will use water or H20. Below is an
illustration of H20 as a gas, a liquid, and a solid.
Steam, Water And Ice
In the illustration there are 3 H20 molecules. The top H20 is a
gas or steam. The middle H20 is a liquid or water. The middle
H20 is a solid or ice. The darker rings are the proton rings
and the lighter rings are the electron rings. There are 4
electron rings for each proton ring. The oxygen is the center
16 proton rings. A single proton ring or hydrogen atom is off
each end. A shared electron ring holds each hydrogen atom to
the oxygen molecule. The illustrator spent many hours doing
this illustration. He used electron rings that had a diameter
of about 4 times that of a proton ring for the steam
illustration. For the water illustration he used a diameter of
3 times that of a proton ring. On the ice illustration the
electron rings diameter is 2 times that of a proton ring. These
diameters may not be true to scale but they show the principle
of the shape changing as the electron rings get bigger (hotter)
or smaller (colder).
The steam illustration is at the top. Imagine this as 18 inner
tubes all inflated to a large size. The density of this atom is
very low. It is like a great big balloon. This atom will
bounce. It will be a gas.
The water illustration is in the middle. The 18 inner tubes
(key ring atoms) are smaller than in the steam. When the
electron rings get smaller or are cooled they will coil through
other electron rings and proton rings. As each individual key
ring atom cools there will be different pressures exerted
throughout the water compound. I believe this pressure causes
the water molecule to warp into a round ball. Now that it is
round it will roll. H20 will now be a liquid. The density of
this atom is much higher than that of the steam. Notice the
overlapping of the electron rings. This makes the atom much
The ice illustration is at the bottom. As the H20 compound
cools, the pressure changes and the compound straightens out, it
is no longer warped. Now the atom will lay flat. It will be a
solid. Notice there are no overlapping electron rings. The
density of ice will be less than that of water due to the lack
of the overlapping electron rings. Thatísí why ice will float.
When water straightens out it also expands. This is what causes
pipes to break when they freeze.
The rate of heat transfer will also be different between water
and ice. When you heat ice, the transfer of heat will be along
a straight line. How the electron rings touch will determine
heat transfer. When you heat the water, the transfer of heat
will be in a circle. The electron rings will touch each other
at different angles than with ice, thus a different transfer
rate. The different transfer rate is already well known. With
the key ring atom and key ring compound this is very easy to
Once again, geometry explains the phenomenon. Geometry explains
solids. Geometry explains liquids. Geometry explains gases.
Geometry explains heat transfer. With the standard model, you
have a vibrating miniature solar system. It is very difficult
to use to explain any of these phenomenon with. Why is that?
Is it possible that the geometry of the standard model is
wrong? Is it possible that the atom is not a miniature solar
system? The vibrating miniature solar system was a 20th
century idea. It may be time for the 21st century
idea Ė the key ring atom.